OBJECTIVE: We report 2 children with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection complicated with spontaneous pneumopericardium (PP) and pneumomediastinum (PM), one also associated with pneumorrhachis (PR).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two previously healthy children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea, and tachypnea. Chest X-ray and CT scans showed sizeable PP and PM in both patients. One of them also presented PR. Children were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics, antipyretics, and a cough sedative. Because of worsening of respiratory distress syndrome, children underwent helmet-delivered CPAP with oxygen supplementation. The patients’ clinical conditions quickly improved and they were discharged in good conditions.
RESULTS: Pathogenetic mechanism of spontaneous PP and PM complicating RSV infection could be related to the cough, causing intrathoracic pressure increase and rupture of alveoli near the mediastinal pleura. Nevertheless, RSV seems to play a role in facilitating such complications, attenuating the cough threshold in infected children.
CONCLUSIONS: RSV bronchiolitis can lead respiratory and systemic consequences, so their prompt recognition is essential to establish a fast and adequate therapy, especially control of cough and respiratory distress syndrome treatment.Free PDF Download
To cite this article
C. Fantacci, P. Ferrara, F. Franceschi, A. Chiaretti
Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, and pneumorrachis complicating acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 21 - N. 15