OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism is correlated closely with resistance to brain damage. This study aims to investigate the effects of APOE4 on oxidative stress damaged cerebral cortical neuron.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary cerebral cortical neurons were isolated from APOE gene knock-out mice (APOE-/- mice). Oxidative stress damaged APOE-/- mouse cerebral cortical neuron model was established. Three experimental designs (experiment 1, 2, 3) were conducted by employing several methods. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) analysis were employed for neurotoxicity assessment. Flow cytometry and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were used to examine neuron apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining were used to identify neuron morphology. Western blot was used to detect phosphorylated CaMK II (p-CaMK II) and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Ca2+ levels in neurons were also examined by detecting fluorescence intensity.
RESULTS: APOE4 treatment (Vehicle + APOE4) significantly aggravates oxidative stress damaged cerebral cortical neuron by increasing LDH levels and decreasing SOD activities, induces neuron apoptosis compared to Vehicle group (p < 0.05). APOE4 treatment significantly enhanced Ca2+ levels compared to Sham group (p < 0.05), MK801 treatment (Vehicle + APOE4 + MK801) significantly decreased Ca2+ levels compared to the Vehicle+APOE4 group at 12 h and 24 h (p < 0.05). APOE4 triggers CaMK II phosphorylation, caspase 3 activation and neurons apoptosis. Both of MK801 and KN93 inhibit CaMK II phosphorylation, decreases caspase 3 activation, and suppresses neurons apoptosis
CONCLUSIONS: APOE triggers Ca2+ overload through NMDAR and CaMK II signaling pathway, both of which cause Ca2+ concentration increasing, CaMK II phosphorylation abnormity, and finally aggravate oxidative stress damaged neurons apoptosis.Free PDF Download
To cite this article
D. Xu, Y. Peng
Apolipoprotein E 4 triggers multiple pathway-mediated Ca2+ overload, causes CaMK II phosphorylation abnormity and aggravates oxidative stress caused cerebral cortical neuron damage
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 21 - N. 24