The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s has transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. HIV-infected patients are living longer and are facing several non-AIDS-associated morbidities related with aging, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia and fragility fractures.
The prevalence of bone disease is higher among HIV-infected subjects. In addition to traditional risk factors, HAART, chronic inflammation and the virus itself have been suggested to contribute to bone loss in the setting of HIV infection.
In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about risk factors for low bone mineral density in HIV-positive patients as well as current recommendations for fracture screening and treatment in this specific population.
To cite this article
D. Castronuovo, B. Cacopardo, M.R. Pinzone, M. Di Rosa, F. Martellotta, O. Schioppa, S. Moreno, G. Nunnari
Bone disease in the setting of HIV infection: update and review of the literature
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 17 - N. 18