OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to analyze the EEG abnormalities of cognitive impairment and epileptic seizures in patients with epilepsy, as well as to investigate the application value of EEG in the diagnosis of epilepsy with cognitive impairment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 62 cases of patients that were admitted to our hospital for the first diagnosis as status epilepticus were selected. Of those, 20 cases were accompanied by cognitive impairment. The America Biology Graphene type 24 leads channel video EEG was applied to monitor staging, index, frequency, and distribution range of epileptic discharge. The revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC) and Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised in China (WMS-RC) were adopted to test cognitive function.
RESULTS: The epileptic discharge index, discharge frequency and discharge distribution range of the conscious period, sleep I-II period and sleep III-IV period of epilepsy with the cognitive impairment group were evidently higher than those of epilepsy without cognitive impairment group. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Memory Quotient (MQ) level of the cognitive impairment group were the lowest in sleep III-IV period, with the next being the sleep I-II period; the highest was the conscious period, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). With an increase of the epileptic discharge index, the discharge range, IQ and MQ level of cognitive impairment group decreased; differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Therefore, the discharge index, frequency, and distribution range of epileptic discharge of epilepsy with cognitive impairment in different periods differed from epilepsy patients without cognitive impairment. According to the extent of cognitive impairment in different stages, discharge index, frequency, and distribution range were also different.
CONCLUSIONS: The 24 h video EEG, which was used to monitor epileptic discharge characteristics, has a great application value for early identification of epilepsy with cognitive impairment.