OBJECTIVE: PANDAS are known as the spectrum of autoimmune pathologies related to a previous or current infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (SBEGA), dealing with several neuropsychiatric manifestations that mainly affect pediatric age. The main features consist of behavioral disease or movement disease characterized by acute-onset, presenting especially through infant period or adolescence. Specific manifestations, occurring during the progression of the disease, are the presence of otorhinolaryngologic symptoms (ENT) and orofacial movement disorders associated with temporomandibular joint pain.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 130 children (5-15 years) with a clinical diagnosis of PANDAS between 2012 and 2018. Participants were assessed using ENT specific parameters, PSG to examine respiratory disorders and conventional audiological evaluation. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed with a control group of 51 healthy patients.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ENT symptoms associated was significantly detected in 88 patients of 130 in Group A (relative frequency (%) 67.6; p=0.041) and in 51 patients of 130 in the control Group B (relative frequency (%) 39.2; p=0.063). In relation to prevalence of SDB, 54 subjects have presented nocturnal respiratory obstructive symptoms from mild to severe (relative frequency (%) 61.3; p=0.033) vs. 20 patients of Group B (relative frequency (%) 39.2; p=0.055). The obstructive severity average type was correlated to the consensual adenotonsillar development (size 3-4), (relative frequency (%) 45.4; p=0.047). The audiological deficits found were mostly of transmissive type with OME correlated and linked to the presence of occasional episodes of AOM. The four PANDAS patients who presented orobuccal dystonia (relative frequency (%) 4.54; p=0.091) achieved an improvement of the algic symptoms through the exercises of self-rehabilitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our study show that respiratory diseases, characterizing a group of patients with pandas, are the direct consequences of the malformed or hypertrophic condition and suggesting in these conditions surgical therapy as an approaching tool.
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S. Cocuzza, S. Marino, A. Gulino, E. Pustorino, P. Murabito, A. Maniaci, L. Sabino, R. Taibi, M. Di Luca, R. Falsaperla, G. Campione, M. Vecchio, P. Pavone
ENT involvement and orobuccal movements’ disorders in Pandas patients: assessment and rehabilitations tools
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 23 - N. 10