OBJECTIVE: Intestinal fibrosis is a process characterized by an excessive deposition of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts and represents a consequence of a chronic inflammation that usually occurs during Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The relationship between inflammation and fibrosis in IBD remains still unclear and nevertheless the recent pharmacological progresses, currently the only resolutive therapeutic strategy is surgery, especially when complications (stricture, stenosis and obstruction of intestinal tracts) appear. As many different cellular types and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, the identification of molecules able to counteract this process could be crucial.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a literature review of several articles published on PubMed databases.
RESULTS: A number of researches suggest that Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) has both anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in many organs. PPAR-γ has been demonstrated to be able to downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as Interleukin (IL)-4,-5,-6 but also to interfere with profibrotic molecules as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), IL-1 and Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β), the main promoter of fibrosis. In preliminary clinical trials and in experimental models of intestinal fibrosis, natural and chemical PPAR-γ ligands have ameliorated the fibrotic process.
CONCLUSIONS: Since PPAR-γ could play a crucial role in the development of the disease, the research of new molecules, capable of ameliorating both inflammation and fibrosis lesions, as PPAR-γ agonists, could represent a valid and effective therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD and intestinal fibrosis.Free PDF Download
To cite this article
A. Vetuschi, S. Pompili, E. Gaudio, G. Latella, R. Sferra
PPAR-γ with its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic action could be an effective therapeutic target in IBD
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 22 - N. 24