Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019; 23 (5): 2280-2292

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_201903_17277

Biological properties of Cakile maritima Scop. (Brassicaceae) extracts

V. Fuochi, I. Barbagallo, A. Distefano, F. Puglisi, R. Palmeri, M. Di Rosa, C. Giallongo, L. Longhitano, P. Fontana, G. Sferrazzo, F. Tiralongo, S.A. Raccuia, S. Ronsisvalle, G. Li Volti, P.M. Furneri, D. Tibullo

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. vfuochi@unict.it


OBJECTIVE: Cakile maritima scop. (CKM) is a herbaceous plant (Brassicaceae) growing also in high salinity environment. It is an annual plant growing in clumps or mounds in the sand on beaches and bluffs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stems, seeds, leaves and flowers of CKM were used to obtain 70% of ethanol extracts. The phenolic content of the different extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The separation of phytochemical compounds was based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Radical scavenging activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. The qualitative assay for the inhibition of α-glucosidase was quantified spectrophotometrically and the anti-inflammatory activity was determined in the U937 cell line by using gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cell viability assay was done in U937, MM1S, and U266 cells by using the 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by MIC determination, “double-triple combinations assay”, and growth inhibition curves analysis, using the extracts individually or in various combination. Statistical analysis was performed by the Student’s t-test and ANOVA.

RESULTS: All parts of the plant exhibited a high antioxidant capacity as measured by DPPH assay. Furthermore, all extracts reduced (about 10 folds) the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophage following LPS treatment. As regards the antibacterial activity, only the seeds extract was able to inhibit both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria when tested alone, whereas dual combinations of different extracts (leaves, flowers, stems and seeds) caused bacterial inhibition exhibiting a synergic action. Finally, we showed that the extracts did not exhibit cytotoxic effects in normal cells and that, surprisingly, it exhibited an anti-proliferative effect (inhibition ≈80%) in multiple myeloma U266 cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that CKM possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-proliferative activities and such pleiotropic effects may be exploited under various pathological conditions.

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V. Fuochi, I. Barbagallo, A. Distefano, F. Puglisi, R. Palmeri, M. Di Rosa, C. Giallongo, L. Longhitano, P. Fontana, G. Sferrazzo, F. Tiralongo, S.A. Raccuia, S. Ronsisvalle, G. Li Volti, P.M. Furneri, D. Tibullo
Biological properties of Cakile maritima Scop. (Brassicaceae) extracts

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2019
Vol. 23 - N. 5
Pages: 2280-2292
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_201903_17277