OBJECTIVE: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a kind of pulmonary microvascular disease and occurs in 15%-30% cirrhosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pulmonary CX3CR1 on angiogenesis and associated mechanisms in HPS animal models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: CX3CR1GFP/GFP mice were constructed by replacing CX3CR1 with GFP. Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) mouse model was established with surgery. Release of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed to examine the inflammation of lung tissues. CD31 expression was detected with immunohistochemistry assay. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of CX3CL1, CX3CR1, phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated-ERK (p-ERK). Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to examine VEGF, PDGF, iNOS, eNOS, and HO-1 expression.
RESULTS: CX3CR1-deficiency (CX3CR1GFP/GFP-sham or CX3CR1GFP/GFP-CBDL mice) significantly reduced NO release compared to wide type (WT)-mice or WT-CBDL mice (p<0.05). CX3CR1-deficiency significantly alleviated inflammation compared to wide type (WT)-mice or WT-CBDL mice (p<0.05). CX3CR1-deficiency significantly reduced CD31 expression compared to WT-sham and WT-CBDL mice, respectively (p<0.05). CX3CR1 also participated in anti-angiogenesis efficacy of Bevacizumab. CX3CR1-deficiency significantly down-regulated the ratio of p-AKT/AKT and p-ERK/ERK and inhibited the secretion of VEGF and PDGF compared to WT-mice (p<0.05). CX3CR1-deficiency significantly reduced iNOS, eNOS, and HO-1 expression compared to WT-mice (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: CX3CR1 deficiency reduced VEGF and PDGF production, inhibited p-AKT, and p-ERK activation and down-regulated iNOS, eNOS, and HO-1 expression. Therefore, CX3CR1 participates in pulmonary angiogenesis in the experimental HPS mice via inhibiting AKT/ERK signaling pathway and regulating NO/NOS release. These findings would provide a potential insight for clarifying the pathological mechanisms of HPS.
To cite this article
H.-J. Gu, S. Zuo, H.-Y. Liu, L.-L. Gu, X.-W. Yang, J. Liao, Q.-Q. Wang, R. Zhao, X.-S. Feng, H.-Y. Li
CX3CR1 participates in pulmonary angiogenesis in experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome mice through inhibiting AKT/ERK signaling pathway and regulating NO/NOS release
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 23 - N. 15