OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. Recently, PPARγ has been reported to be involved in cancer. The present study reported a PPARγ consensus binding site (AGGTCA) in the ptprf promoter and identified a strong association between PPARγ and PTPRF expression, as well as their tumor suppressor roles in a v-Ha-Ras-induced model of breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prognostic potential of PPARγ was assessed with a KM analysis of raw data from 3,951 breast cancer patients. The expression of PPARγ and PTPRF in the rat breast cancer cell lines was detected by Western blot and qPCR. The impact of PPARγ on cancer cell migration, invasion, and growth was confirmed using cell migration assay, transwell cell invasion assay, tri-dimensional soft agar culture, respectively. The binding of PPARγ with the ptprf promoter was then examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The inhibitory effect of PPARγ on tumor growth was then examined in mouse tumor model in vivo.
RESULTS: It was identified that PPARγ expression is lost in the aggressive v-Ha-Ras-induced breast cancer cell line FE1.2 but highly expressed in less malignant FE1.3 cells. Exogenous expression of PPARγ in FE1.2 cells (FE1.2-PPARγhi) resulted in a marked inhibition of proliferation compared with that in FE1.2-Vector control group. FE1.2-PPARγhi cells also exhibited reduced migration, invasion, and colony formation abilities compared with those of the controls. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone also suppressed the malignant properties of FE1.2 cells. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor F (PTPRF), a downstream target of PPARγ, was markedly induced in FE1.2-PPARγhi cells. A PPARγ consensus binding site (AGGTCA) was identified in the ptprf promoter, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that PPARγ bind to this promoter. Similar to the effect of vector-mediated overexpression of PPARγ, ectopic overexpression of PTPRF in FE1.2 cells led to reduced proliferation. Furthermore, a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) and PTP inhibitor (NSC87877) abrogated the suppressive function of PPARγ and PTPRF in FE1.2 cells, respectively. PPARγ overexpression or activation suppressed the progression and distant organ metastasis of breast cancer cells in a NOD/SCID mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PPARγ inhibits tumor cell proliferation, at least in part, through direct regulation of the ptprf gene and that PPARγ is a potential target for breast cancer treatment.
To cite this article
Y.-Y. Xu, H. Liu, L. Su, N. Xu, D.-H. Xu, H.-Y. Liu, D. Spaner, Y. Bed-David, Y.-J. Li
PPARγ inhibits breast cancer progression by upregulating PTPRF expression
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 23 - N. 22