OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in varicose lower-extremity veins.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue samples of normal lower extremity vein (56 cases) and varicose lower extremity vein (47 cases) were collected. Western blot and real-time fluorescent qPCR were performed to measure the expression of Estrogen receptor α (ERα) in tissues. Two cell co-culture systems were established for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs). One system was incubated under normal oxygen conditions (normal oxygen group), and the other was under oxygen-poor conditions (hypoxia group). The two systems were treated with 10-7 mM Estrogen E2, 10-7 mM BSA-conjugated Estrogen E2-BSA, 10-7 mM Estrogen E2+10-3 mM Tamoxifen (TAM), respectively for 24 h. The treated cells were subjected to cell scratch assay, transwell assay, and Western blot analysis of MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression.
RESULTS: The expression of ERα in varicose lower extremity vein was significantly up-regulated compared with that in normal lower extremity vein. The cell migration rate and the number of migrating cells in untreated hypoxia group and E2-treated normal oxygen group were comparable (p>0.05) to those in untreated normal oxygen group. The cell migration rate and the number of migrating cells were significantly increased (p<0.05) in E2-treated hypoxia group, compared with E2-treated normal oxygen group and untreated hypoxia group. The cell migration rate, the number of migrating cells, and expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 were significantly decreased in E2/TAM-treated hypoxia group, compared with those in E2-treated hypoxia group.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, E2 can promote the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and induce varicose veins of the lower extremities, which may be related to the promotion of MMP2 and MMP9 expression through the classical pathway of ER.Free PDF Download
To cite this article
M.-Y. Zhao, T. Zhao, Q.-Y. Meng, L. Zhao, X.-C. Li
Estrogen and estrogen receptor affects MMP2 and MMP9 expression through classical ER pathway and promotes migration of lower venous vascular smooth muscle cells
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 24 - N. 3