OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness may be an early marker for vascular changes associated with hypertension in young adults. Individuals with a family history of hypertension are at high risk of developing hypertension. We investigated whether arterial stiffness measured, such as mean arterial pressure (MAP) and brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), were increased in normotensive offspring with a parental history of hypertension.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared MAP and baPWV in a sample of 1953 non-hypertensive participants (974 men, mean age 42±3 years) recruited in the previous Hanzhong adolescent hypertension cohort study. Standardized questionnaires, physical examinations and laboratory tests were used to obtain information, with a particular focus on family hypertension history, anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical factors.
RESULTS: A total of 1039, 759, 155 participants had 0, 1, and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively. Parental hypertension was associated with elevated offspring MAP (in multivariable-adjusted models, B=1.5 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.8-2.2 for 1 parent with hypertension; B=3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.8-4.3, for 2 parents with hypertension; p<0.001 for each). A significant positive correlation was also observed between MAP and baPWV (r=0.543, p<0.001). BaPWV displayed a similar correlation with parental hypertension in age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted models (B=23.1 cm/s, 95% CI 8.0-38.1, for 1 parent with hypertension, p<0.01; B=53.0 cm/s, 95% CI 25.8-80.2, p<0.001 for 2 parents with hypertension), but associations were attenuated in multicovariate models after adjustment for MAP. In multivariable-adjusted models, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of belonging to the upper quartile of MAP was significantly increased for offspring whose parents had hypertension (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, for 1 parent with hypertension; OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4, for 2 parents with hypertension; p<0.001 for each). Similarly, the odds ratios of belonging to the upper quartile of baPWV increased (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, for 1 parent with hypertension, p<0.05; OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0, for 2 parents with hypertension, p<0.001, in age-sex-BMI-adjusted models), and were then brought down in the fully adjusted models including MAP, but the increase remained significant for 2 parents with hypertension (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that arterial stiffness is higher in young-to middle-aged normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension, suggesting that increased arterial stiffness may occur in the early stages during the pathogenesis of hypertension.Free PDF Download
To cite this article
X.-J. Xu, Y.-J. Gang, X. Liu, G.-R. Huang, C. Chu, J.-J. Mu, R.-H. Yang
Association of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive offspring with parental hypertension: the Hanzhong adolescent hypertension cohort study
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 24 - N. 17