Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25 (4): 2123-2130

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202102_25118

SARS-CoV-2 and finding of vein thrombosis: can IMPROVE and IMPROVEDD scores predict COVID-19 outcomes?

S. Greco, G. Zenunaj, B. Bonsi, A. Bella, M. Lopreiato, F. Luciani, D. Pedrini, G. Vestita, E. Dalla Nora, A. Passaro

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. psn@unife.it


OBJECTIVE: Diffuse thrombosis represents one of the most predominant causes of death by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to increase the risk of developing venous thromboembolic diseases (VTE). Aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between validated predictive scores for VTE such as IMPROVE and IMPROVEDD and: (1) Intensification of Care (IoC, admission to Pulmonology Department or Intensive Care Unit) (2) in-hospital mortality rate 3) 30-days mortality rate.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 51 adult patients with laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and calculated IMPROVE and IMPROVEDD scores. All patients underwent venous color-Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs to assess the presence of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) and/or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with normal values of D-dimer did not receive heparin therapy (LMWH); patients with ≥ 4 ULN values of D-dimer or with a diagnosis of DVT were treated with therapeutic LMWH dosage, while the remaining patients were treated with prophylactic LMWH dosages.

RESULTS: We found strong relations between IMPROVE score and the need for IoC and with the in-hospital mortality rate and between the IMPROVEDD score and the need for IoC. We defined that an IMPROVE score greater than 4 points was significantly associated to in-hospital mortality rate (p = 0.05), while an IMPROVEDD score greater than 3 points was associated with the need for IoC (p = 0.04). Multivariate logistic analysis showed how IMPROVE score was significantly associated to in-hospital and 30-days mortality rates.

CONCLUSIONS: IMPROVE score can be considered an independent predictor of in-hospital and 30-days mortality.

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To cite this article

S. Greco, G. Zenunaj, B. Bonsi, A. Bella, M. Lopreiato, F. Luciani, D. Pedrini, G. Vestita, E. Dalla Nora, A. Passaro
SARS-CoV-2 and finding of vein thrombosis: can IMPROVE and IMPROVEDD scores predict COVID-19 outcomes?

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2021
Vol. 25 - N. 4
Pages: 2123-2130
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202102_25118