OBJECTIVE: While both first-line antioxidant enzymes and oxidation products have been considered as markers of periodontal disease, their assessment in the diagnosis of periodontal disease is more complicated. Some, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), have indicated significant differences between patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants (101) were divided into a control group of healthy individuals and, following diagnosis, patients with gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. Compounds reflecting tissue destruction, inflammatory processes or antioxidant responses, such as sirtuins (SIRT-1, SIRT-2), metalloproteinases (MMP), SOD, GPx, GSH, and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured in saliva.
RESULTS: SIRT-2 levels were significantly increased in all patients. In patients with gingivitis, MMP (p<0.05) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly increased. In patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, SOD activities were increased (p<0.001) while GPx and GR were decreased (p<0.001). Relative activities of MMP were higher in patients with aggressive periodontitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of SIRT-2 and SOD clearly showed increased levels of oxidative stress in cases of periodontitis with a subsequent inhibition of other antioxidant enzymes. Levels of GSH suggest reversibility of the conditions with appropriate intervention. With the assessment of the trends of these selected antioxidant markers, it is possible to determine the prognosis of the disease.
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J. Kluknavská, K. Krajčíková, B. Bolerázska, J. Mašlanková, J. Ohlasová, S. Timková, Z. Drotárová, J. Vašková
Possible prognostic biomarkers of periodontitis in saliva
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 25 - N. 8