OBJECTIVE: The current study reviewed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants for their effects on infection, transmission and neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research articles for the current study were searched over PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Web of Science online databases. The keywords used were: ((“SARS-CoV-2” OR “COVID-19”) AND (“mutation” OR “variant”) AND (“death” OR “hospitalization” OR “infection” OR “transmission”) AND (“antibody” OR “neutralize” OR “vaccine”)). A total of 333 research articles were retrieved through online-database search. These articles were further scrutinized for their relevancy. Additionally, searches were performed to find the latest relevant information over Google search engine and relevant news browsers. Finally, around 35 germane articles were considered for scripting the current report.
RESULTS: The mutations have changed amino acids at key positions in spike protein viz. S477N, E484K, Q677H, E484Q, L452R, K417T, K417N and N501Y. These mutations are relevant for different characteristics and are present in newly evolved strains of SARS-CoV-2 like E484K in B.1.526, B.1.525, P.2, B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351. Mutations have increased the immune escape potential leading to 3.5-6.5-folds decrease in neutralization of antibodies (Pfizer and Moderna vaccines). The variant, B.1.617 circulating in India and many other countries (double variant) having E484Q and L452R mutations, has raised the infection rate and decreased the neutralization capacity of the vaccine-induced antibodies. Deadly K417N+E484K+N501Y triplet mutations found in B.1.351 and P.1 have increased the transmission ability of these strains by 50% leading to greater COVID-19 hospitalization, ICU admissions and deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: The new SARS-CoV-2 variants have compromised the neutralization potential of the currently used vaccines, but still, they have considerable efficacy to reduce infection and mortality.
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To cite this article
M. Wahid, A. Jawed, R.K. Mandal, H.G. Dailah, E.M. Janahi, K. Dhama, P. Somvanshi, S. Haque
Variants of SARS-CoV-2, their effects on infection, transmission and neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 25 - N. 18