OBJECTIVE: With the recent direction in drug repurposing, many approved drugs have been evaluated to assess their effect on the coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). Driving this path, chloroquine (CQ) has been used in the treatment of malaria and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic action, playing a leading role in initial management of the viral infection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was done using Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus database using keywords “chloroquine” “SARS-CoV-2” “COVID-19” “mechanism of action” and articles of interest were selected providing evidence of the possible role of CQ in viral infection.
RESULTS: In a bid to understand how and if CQ and HCQ would exert their anti-viral property, mechanistic exegesis was done to review various proposed mechanisms of action. This revealed the inhibition of viral attachment and entry, inhibition of enveloped glycoprotein, inhibition of the development and proliferation of new viral particles as the way they perform their action. There is an interplay between iron metabolism and homeostasis with COVID-19 infection and viral reproduction.
CONCLUSIONS: This study aims to show the functional role of CQ and HCQ, as well as to provide possible mechanistic insight on the role of iron on viral infection, iron starvation and its downstream cellular pathways involving hepcidin and proinflammatory cytokines. The overall aim of providing possible mode of action of CQ and HCQ in the management of COVID-19 infection is exhibited via its anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities.Free PDF Download
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To cite this article
G.E.-S. Batiha, H.M. Shaheen, H.M. Al-Kuraishy, J.O. Teibo, O.A. Akinfe, A.I. Al-Garbee, T.K.A. Teibo, S.M. Kabrah
Possible mechanistic insights into iron homeostasis role of the action of 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine) on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 25 - N. 23