OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate a potential association between the severity of COVID-19 disease and related 28-day mortality, with the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, the extension of lung parenchymal infiltrates, the presence of pulmonary embolism, the density and distribution of mediastinal and subcutaneous fat, the inflammatory markers and the direct and indirect radiological signs of right heart overload and strain.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were admitted to the Departments of Internal and Respiratory Medicine of Patras University Hospital during the second pandemic wave (February 2021 up to July 2021) and underwent CTPA for routine diagnostic workup. Demographic characteristics, routine laboratory, radiological parameters and 28-day mortality were also recorded.
RESULTS: Fifty-three consecutive patients were included. The mean age was 64.47±17.1 years and 64,1% (n=34) were males. Pulmonary embolism (PE) (p=0.019), Right Ventricle-to-Left Ventricle Diameter (RV/LV) Ratio>1 (p<0.01), Reverse Flow in Hepatic Veins (RFHV) (p=0.019), higher density in subcutaneous fat (-99 HU vs. -104HU, p=0.016), increased Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), ferritin, and d-dimer levels (534 vs. 367 U/L, p=0.001, 9220 vs. 5660 Κ/μL, p=001, 956 vs. 360 ng/ml, p=0.005 and 2300 vs. 1040 μg/ml, p=0.003, respectively) were statistically significant related with worse 28-day mortality. Binomial multivariate regression analysis revealed that only RV/LV diameter>1, higher subcutaneous fat density and higher LDH values were independently associated with increased 28-day mortality (OR: 82.9, 95%CI: 1.334-5158, p=0.036, OR: 1.2, 95%CI: 1.016-1.426, p=0.032 and OR:1.016, 95% CI:1.004-1.029, p=0.011, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that mediastinal lymph node enlargement (EML) and PE were associated to increased Pulmonary Disease Severity Index (PDSI) score (p=0.042 and p=0.007, respectively), but not to mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that right heart strain as depicted by a RV/LV diameter>1, higher subcutaneous fat density and higher LDH values are independently associated with an increased 28-day mortality in our SARS-COV2 patient group.Free PDF Download
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F. Sampsonas, M. Lagadinou, C. Kalogeropoulou, V. Karamouzos, K. Dionysopoulos, D. Velissaris, T. Karampitsakos, O. Papaioannou, E. Zarkadi, E. Malakounidou, M. Katsaras, G. Stratakos, P. Zampakis, M. Marangos, A. Tzouvelekis
CTPA imaging findings, beyond pulmonary embolism, in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 infection and their relation to clinical outcome – a single center experience
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 26 - N. 12