Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022; 26 (13): 4774-4788

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202207_29203

Literature review on the cross-link between ocular and renal disease: renin angiotensin aldosterone system is a main actor

S. Lai, A.M. Perrotta, D. Bagordo, S. Mazzaferro, P. Menè, F. Errigo, F. Tinti, S. Rotondi, A. Molfino, M. Simeoni, A.P. Mitterhofer, R. Cianci

Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. mariadelina.simeoni@unicampania.it


OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ocular disease share several cardiovascular risk factors as well as pathogenetic mechanisms having Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) as main actor. Moreover, kidney and eyes have common genetic and embryonic origin. In this literature review, we present main evidence supporting this association for early identifying diseases affecting both systems and evaluating potential multi-target therapeutic strategies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature review of the current peer-reviewed English-language randomized controlled studies (RCTs), reference lists of nephrology or ophthalmology textbooks, review articles and relevant studies with ocular or eye and kidney or renal diseases as keywords until March 2020. Prospective and retrospective studies as well as meta-analyses and latest systematic reviews were included.

RESULTS: We evaluated a total of 683 records, finally selecting 119 articles related to ocular and renal diseases. Records were divided into two areas: chronic and acute kidney disease and ocular or eye diseases. Some of the examined studies were discarded for population biases/intervention or deemed unfit.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we conclude that there is evidence of a clear association between kidney and eye diseases, being this cross-link mainly based on RAAS dysregulation. Our review suggests that it may be useful to screen CKD patients for associated ocular diseases, such as cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. A comprehensive study of CKD and proteinuric patients should include careful eye examination. Renal impairment in young patients should prompt a search for ocular disease, such as TUNA syndrome or oculo-renal syndrome, in particular if family history of concurrent ocular and renal disease is present. Anti-RAAS agents are mostly recommended in patients with renal and ocular impairment.

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S. Lai, A.M. Perrotta, D. Bagordo, S. Mazzaferro, P. Menè, F. Errigo, F. Tinti, S. Rotondi, A. Molfino, M. Simeoni, A.P. Mitterhofer, R. Cianci
Literature review on the cross-link between ocular and renal disease: renin angiotensin aldosterone system is a main actor

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2022
Vol. 26 - N. 13
Pages: 4774-4788
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202207_29203