Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022; 26 (14): 5297-5306

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202207_29321

Comparison of immune activation of the COVID vaccines: ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, BBIBP-CorV, and Gam-COVID-Vac from serological human samples in Hungary showed higher protection after mRNA-based immunization

E. Fodor, I. Olmos Calvo, O. Kuten-Pella, E. Hamar, M. Bukva, Á. Madár, I. Hornyák, A. Hinsenkamp, R. Hetényi, F. Földes, Z. Brigitta, F. Jakab, G. Kemenesi, Z. Lacza

University of Physical Education, Budapest, Hungary. isabel.olmos@orthosera.com


OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the different protective mechanisms of approved vaccines, this study focuses on the comparison of humoral and cellular immune responses of five widely used vaccines including ChAdOx1 (AZD1222, AstraZeneca), BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), and Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated plasma from 95 volunteers’ blood samples was used to measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immune responses. Positive controls were recovered patients from COVID-19 (unvaccinated). Specific quantification kits for anti-nucleocapsid IgG, anti-Spike protein IgG, neutralizing antibodies as well as specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens for T-cell activation were used and Spearman correlation and matrix analyses were performed to compare overall immune responses.

RESULTS: Nucleocapsid antibodies were significantly higher for the BBIBP-CorV and convalescent group when compared to other vaccines. In contrast, subjects vaccinated with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 presented significantly higher anti-spike IgG. In fact, 9.1% of convalescent, 4.5% of Gam-COVID-Vac, 28.6% of ChAdOx1, and 12.5% of BBIBP-CorV volunteers did not generate anti-spike IgG. Similarly, a positive correlation was observed after the neutralization assay. T-cell activation studies showed that mRNA-based vaccines induced a T-cell driven immune response in all cases, while 55% of convalescents,  8% of BNT162b1,  12,5% of mRNA-1273, 9% of Gam-COVID-Vac,  57% of ChAdOx1,  and  56% of BBIBP-CorV subjects presented no cellular response. Further correlation matrix analyses indicated that anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies production, and T-cell activation follow the same trend after immunization.

CONCLUSIONS: RNA-based vaccines induced the most robust adaptive immune activation against SARS-CoV-2 by promoting a significantly higher T-cell response, anti-spike IgG and neutralization levels. Vector-based vaccines protected against the virus at a comparable level to convalescent patients.

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E. Fodor, I. Olmos Calvo, O. Kuten-Pella, E. Hamar, M. Bukva, Á. Madár, I. Hornyák, A. Hinsenkamp, R. Hetényi, F. Földes, Z. Brigitta, F. Jakab, G. Kemenesi, Z. Lacza
Comparison of immune activation of the COVID vaccines: ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, BBIBP-CorV, and Gam-COVID-Vac from serological human samples in Hungary showed higher protection after mRNA-based immunization

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2022
Vol. 26 - N. 14
Pages: 5297-5306
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202207_29321