Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022; 26 (15): 5624-5632

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202208_29436

Human monkeypox outbreak: global prevalence and biological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics – observational analysis between 1970-2022

S.A. Meo, D.C. Klonoff

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. smeo@ksu.edu.sa


OBJECTIVE: The human monkeypox infection has become the prevalent orthopoxviral disease in humans, and has developed challenging and threatening situations worldwide. This study is aimed at exploring the global epidemiological, biological and clinical characteristics of monkeypox from 1970 to July 1, 2022.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about the monkeypox outbreak and its epidemiological and biological characteristics was obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports, Pub-Med, and Web of Science. Initially, these two leading international health organizations, and 10 documents were identified; after reviewing, we included WHO and CDC, and six documents in the analysis.

RESULTS: Worldwide, from 1970 to July 1, 2022, the total number of confirmed and suspected cases of human monkeypox disease in endemic and non-endemic nations was 46,915. In endemic regions, the number of confirmed cases has been 2,805 and suspected cases have been 38,327, with a total number of 41,132. However, from May 7, 2022, to July 1, 2022, 5,783 monkeypox cases have been found in 52 non-endemic nations in Europe, the UK, the USA, Australia and the Middle East. The majority of cases have been found in the United Kingdom (1,235), Germany (1,054), Spain (800), France (498), United States (459), Portugal (402), Netherlands (288), Canada (287), Italy (192), Belgium (117), Switzerland (91), Israel (42), Ireland (39), Austria (37), Sweden (28), Brazil (21), and Denmark (20). The clinical presentation of monkeypox disease is mild symptoms, including headache, lymphadenopathy, body aches, severe weakness, and acute onset of fever above 38.5°C. A skin rash initiates as macules or papules, progresses to pustules and vesicles, ulcers, and ultimately transitions to crusted scabs. In a short period of about two months, the monkeypox cases swiftly spread in 52 non-endemic countries with an increased percentage worldwide.

CONCLUSIONS: The geographic pattern of monkeypox disease spread is rapidly shifting from endemic to non-endemic regions. It now involves not only Africa but also Europe, the USA, the UK, Australia and the Middle East. The clinical characteristics of monkeypox infection are mostly mild symptoms, including headache, lymphadenopathy, body aches, severe weakness, and acute onset of fever above 38.5 degrees Centigrade. A skin rash originates as macules or papules, progresses to pustules and vesicles, ulcers, and eventually to crusted scabs. The regional and international health establishments must take priority preventive procedures to break the outbreaks of monkeypox disease across the globe. The physicians, healthcare workers, patients, and public education is of utmost importance to eradicate the disease.

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To cite this article

S.A. Meo, D.C. Klonoff
Human monkeypox outbreak: global prevalence and biological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics – observational analysis between 1970-2022

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2022
Vol. 26 - N. 15
Pages: 5624-5632
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202208_29436