Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2023; 27 (18): 8915-8923
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202309_33812

A new challenge for urinary free light chains: assessment of the upper reference limit in healthy subjects

P. Natali, D. Debbia, M.R. Cucinelli, V. Nasillo, G. Riva, G. Cigliana, V. Carnazzo, T. Trenti, M. Marino, U. Basile

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria e Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale di Modena, Modena, Italy. mariapaola.marino@unicatt.it


OBJECTIVE: Free light chains (FLCs) can be measured in both urine (uFLC) and serum (sFLC) in immunochemistry. We aim to compare FLC levels in serum and urine assessed among healthy volunteers and measured upper reference limits (URLs) of urinary FLC to creatinine ratio (uFLC/uCr) in mg/g to compare with the manufacturer’s recommended URLs.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility criteria: normal serum and urine FLC measure and negative serum/urinary immunofixation. Immunoturbidimetry was used to assess both κ and λ FLCs. The URLs were calculated with the 97.5th percentile of uFLC concentrations according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations.

RESULTS: 126 healthy subjects (median age 46 years, 62% females) met the inclusion criteria. Median concentrations of κ and λ sFLCs were similar both for males and females without significant differences. κ and λ uFLCs were significantly higher in males than in females (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Slower clearance for λ FLC compared to κ FLC was observed with an increased κ/λ uFLC ratio in both males and females. URLs for male and female subjects: κ uFLC mg/g uCr = 34.35 vs. 23.18, and λ uFLC mg/g uCr = 3.59 vs. 1.96, respectively compared well with manufacturer’s URLs.

CONCLUSIONS: FLC catabolism is gender-dependent and occurs less rapidly in λ FLC than in κ FLC. The determination of the URL of uFLC, as uFLC/uCr, in healthy subjects in morning urine, proved to be consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations, but with a significant difference according to gender.

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P. Natali, D. Debbia, M.R. Cucinelli, V. Nasillo, G. Riva, G. Cigliana, V. Carnazzo, T. Trenti, M. Marino, U. Basile
A new challenge for urinary free light chains: assessment of the upper reference limit in healthy subjects

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2023
Vol. 27 - N. 18
Pages: 8915-8923
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202309_33812