Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24 (12): 7164-7172

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21712

The antiviral mechanisms, effects, safety and adverse effects of chloroquine

Z.-X. Wei, T.-T. Tang, S.-P. Jiang

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. jiangshp@mail.sysu.edu.cn


Chloroquine, a 4-aminoquinoline derivative, was initially used to treat malaria. It was later found to have immunomodulating, anti-infective, anti-thrombotic, anti-tumor, and metabolic effects. Recently, many studies have focused on the application of chloroquine in viral infections. Most in vitro studies suggested that chloroquine exerted some benefit in infections from viruses. However, animal experiment and clinical trials that attempted to use chloroquine in prevention or treatment of viral infections have reported disappointing results. It might be attributable to inadequate steady-state whole blood chloroquine concentration necessary for exerting its antiviral effects. A 16 μM/L steady-state whole blood concentration of chloroquine should suffice in antiviral treatment with minimal toxicity. Furthermore, chloroquine has both acute and cumulative toxicity. Hence, not only the appropriate treatment dose is crucial, the occurrence of adverse reactions should also be closely monitored and treated in time. Herein, we report the antiviral mechanisms, effects, safety and adverse effects of chloroquine.

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To cite this article

Z.-X. Wei, T.-T. Tang, S.-P. Jiang
The antiviral mechanisms, effects, safety and adverse effects of chloroquine

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2020
Vol. 24 - N. 12
Pages: 7164-7172
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21712