OBJECTIVE: The wildfire allied environmental pollution is highly toxic and can cause significant wide-ranging damage to the regional environment, weather conditions, and it can facilitate the transmission of microorganisms and diseases. The present study aims to investigate the effect of wildfire allied pollutants, particulate matter (PM-2.5 μm), and carbon monoxide (CO) on the dynamics of daily cases and deaths due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in San Francisco, USA.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, we selected San Francisco, one of the regions affected by the wildfires allied pollution in California, USA. The data on the COVID-19 pandemic in San Francisco, including daily new cases and new deaths were recorded from Worldometer Web. The daily environmental pollutants particulate matter (PM-2.5 μm) and carbon monoxide (CO) were recorded from the metrological web “BAAQMD”. The daily cases, deaths, particulate matter (PM-2.5 μm) and carbon monoxide were documented from the date of the occurrence of the first case of (SARS-CoV-2) in San Francisco, CA, USA, from March 20, 2020 to Sept 16, 2020.
RESULTS: The results revealed a significant positive correlation between the environmental pollutants particulate matter (PM2.5 μm) and the number of daily cases (r=0.203, p=0.007), cumulative cases (r=0.567, p<0.001) and cumulative deaths (r=0.562, p<0.001); whereas the PM2.5 μm and daily deaths had no relationship (r=-0.015, p=0.842). In addition, CO was also positively correlated with cumulative cases (r=0.423, p<0.001) and cumulative deaths (r=0.315, p<0.001), however, CO had no correlation with the number of daily cases (r=0.134, p=0.075) and daily deaths (r=0.030, p=0.693). In San Francisco, one micrometer (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 caused an increase in the daily cases, cumulative cases and cumulative deaths of SARS-COV-2 by 0.5%, 0.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Moreover, with a 1 part per million (ppm) increase in carbon monoxide level, the daily number of cases, cumulative cases and cumulative deaths increased by 5%, 9.3% and 5.3%, respectively. On the other hand, CO and daily deaths had no significant relationship.
CONCLUSIONS: The wildfire allied pollutants, particulate matter PM-2.5μm and CO have a positive association with an increased number of SARS-COV-2 daily cases, cumulative cases and cumulative deaths in San Francisco. The metrological, disaster management and health officials must implement the necessary policies and assist in planning to minimize the wildfire incidences, environmental pollution and COVID-19 pandemic both at regional and international levels.Free PDF Download
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License
To cite this article
S.A. Meo, A.A. Abukhalaf, A.A. Alomar, O.M. Alessa
Wildfire and COVID-19 pandemic: effect of environmental pollution PM-2.5 and carbon monoxide on the dynamics of daily cases and deaths due to SARS-COV-2 infection in San-Francisco USA
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Vol. 24 - N. 19