Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25 (19): 6003-6012

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202110_26878

Safety profile of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: a disproportionality analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database

G. Papazisis, S. Siafis, D. Cepatyte, D. Giannis, E. Stamoula, D. Tzachanis, T. Egberts

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. papazisg@auth.gr


OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to identify potential safety signals of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), over the period preceding their repurpose as COVID-19 treatment options, through the analysis of safety data retrieved from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) pharmacovigilance database.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis of FAERS data between the first quarter of 2004 and December 2019 using the OpenVigil2.1-MedDRA software. Disproportionality was quantified using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and its 95% confidence interval (CIs). The reported mortality of CQ and HCQ was also investigated.

RESULTS: The dataset contained 6,635,356 reports. Comparison of the RORs revealed significant differences between CQ and HCQ for the following adverse events: cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, retinal disorders, corneal disorders, hearing disorders, headache, hepatic disorders, severe cutaneous reactions, musculoskeletal disorders, and cytopenia. Only CQ was associated with psychotic disorders, suicide, self-injury, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy, and decreased appetite. In multivariable logistic regression, death was more frequently associated with CQ use, advanced age, male sex, co-reported suicide and self-injury, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and decreased appetite.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previously published evidence and suggest that HCQ has a safer clinical profile compared to CQ, and thus could serve as the drug of choice for future therapeutic purposes.

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To cite this article

G. Papazisis, S. Siafis, D. Cepatyte, D. Giannis, E. Stamoula, D. Tzachanis, T. Egberts
Safety profile of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: a disproportionality analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2021
Vol. 25 - N. 19
Pages: 6003-6012
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202110_26878