Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022; 26 (16): 5729-5735

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202208_29509

Multiple encephalopathy syndrome: a case of a novel radiological subtype of acute encephalopathy in childhood

Y. Fujita, G. Imataka, H. Sakuma, J.-I. Takanashi, S. Yoshihara

Department of Pediatrics, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan. geo@dokkyomed.ac.jp


INTRODUCTION: This report presents the case of a novel subtype of acute encephalopathy syndrome in childhood found in a patient with influenza type A infection; the patient exhibited evident magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy was transferred to our hospital for prolonged (lasting 60 min) status epilepticus with influenza encephalopathy. Mild brain hypothermia therapy was applied for 72 h, followed by targeted temperature management for 96 h with mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. Moreover, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and immunoglobulin therapy were administered. One month after the treatment, his physical status recovered such that he was able to run, take food orally, communicate verbally, and successfully return to kindergarten. Interestingly, serial MRI studies revealed findings that were compatible with 1) acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE), 2) mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS type II), 3) acute cerebellitis, and 4) acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) on days 2, 4, 7, and 16, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, these significant MRI findings associated with acute encephalopathy have never been reported. Thus, herein, we propose the new term radiological “multiple encephalopathy syndrome (MES)” based on our case of acute encephalopathy in childhood.

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To cite this article

Y. Fujita, G. Imataka, H. Sakuma, J.-I. Takanashi, S. Yoshihara
Multiple encephalopathy syndrome: a case of a novel radiological subtype of acute encephalopathy in childhood

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2022
Vol. 26 - N. 16
Pages: 5729-5735
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202208_29509