Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022; 26 (17): 6374-6381

DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202209_29664

Nosocomial outbreak of Achromobacter spp. bacteremia due to germicide contamination: a systematic review

S.H. Yoon, H. Kim, S.M. Lim, J.-M. Kang

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children’s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. yoonsh@yuhs.ac


OBJECTIVE: Achromobacter spp. are aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli that can be widely found in aquatic environments. Nosocomial outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of Achromobacter spp. bacteremia have been recognized for decades. Notably, commonly used germicides in hospital settings constitute important sources for these outbreaks. This review aims at summarizing the latest studies and presents the characteristics of nosocomial outbreaks of Achromobacter spp. bacteremia caused by germicide contamination.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted for articles published in English between January 1, 2000, and June 10, 2022.

RESULTS: Overall, 170 articles were retrieved, and 7 studies were finally included in the systematic review. Whether true or pseudo-bacteremia, positive blood culture results were most commonly reported in immunosuppressed patients or those with indwelling catheters. The most commonly reported contaminated germicide was chlorhexidine solution used as both an antiseptic and disinfectant. Atomizers, dispensers, and various product containers were identified as reservoirs. The prognoses of the affected patients were generally favorable.

CONCLUSIONS: Awareness about the high survival ability of Achromobacter spp. in germicides and the possible hospital reservoirs of these microbes will help to improve infection control and prevent nosocomial outbreaks or pseudo-outbreaks caused by Achromobacter spp.

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To cite this article

S.H. Yoon, H. Kim, S.M. Lim, J.-M. Kang
Nosocomial outbreak of Achromobacter spp. bacteremia due to germicide contamination: a systematic review

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Year: 2022
Vol. 26 - N. 17
Pages: 6374-6381
DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202209_29664